Jan 172016

Sri Jayatiirtha is one of stalwarts of Tattvavaada, and is a very senior scholar of the Madhva heirarchy, being next only to Srimad Ananda Tirtha, Sri Vadiraja Tirtha, and Sri Padmanabha Tirtha. He is responsible for several commentaries upon Srimad Ananda Tirtha’s works, which are all written in a remarkable style that is unfailingly precise, appropos, and eloquent. Not for him the off-topic digressions, dogmatic and malappropos assertions, axe-grinding, and superfluous literary ornamentation, that are so favored by many lesser talents. Unlike them, he never strays from the straight-and-narrow path of logical presentation — he never uses two words where one would suffice, nor does he use a word when another might be better suited; he is a model of humility, and does not have any agenda except the service of his master. Perhaps as important to his overall worth, he never introduces spurious new material that does not inhere in the works that he exposits.

His definitions of complicated Sanskrit terms are a truly outstanding feature of his scholarship — one is not only instantly made aware of the correct meaning of the term being used and its relationship to the matter being discussed, but one is also given an angelic whiff of the intellectual ambrosia of Srimad Ananda Tiirtha’s works. The definitions are rare delicacies, to be savored at great length, and to be valued as literary gems that are known only to a favored few. It is very hard indeed for one who has had a proper exposure to Sri Jayatiirtha’s erudition, to settle for, or even to tolerate, the drivel of anyone less. His clear expositions of Srimad Ananda Tirtha’s masterpieces, coming as they do through his very scholarly writing, contributed in no small measure to giving Tattvavaada its place in modern Vedanta. Through his works, he has firmly established himself as one of the all-time front-runners of philosophical Sanskrit literature, and as a most important disciple of Srimad Ananda Tirtha. As Dr. B.N.K. Sharma puts it, “He is to Madhva even more than what Vacaspati Misra is to Sankara.” It is said that in a previous birth, Sri Jayatirtha was a bull that served as a pack-animal, and traveled with Srimad Ananda Tirtha and his devotees, whose library it carried.

When Srimad Ananda Tirtha would give a lecture, the bull would stand at a distance and listen silently. Once, when some disciples approached Srimad Ananda Tirtha and asked him which of them would be the one to write commentaries on his works, he told those importunates that it would be the bull that would do so, rather than one of them. At this, some jealous disciples laid a curse on the bull, that it would be bitten to death by a snake, but Srimad Ananda Tirtha changed the wording of the curse slightly, so that the snake bit the bull and itself died immediately, leaving its victim unharmed. Sri Jayatirtha’s biographies include Anu-Jayatirtha-Vijaya and Brhad-Jayatirtha-Vijaya. He spent much of his physical life in Mangalvedhe, which is about 12 miles south-east of Pandharpur (in modern Maharashtra, and home of Lord Vitthala). He was born in the family of a Brahmin king, and was heir to the throne. He was very handsome, healthy, intelligent, endowed with physical vigor, and given to outdoor activity.

Once, while the young Dhond Pant Raghunath (his name during purva-ashrama) was horse-riding, he bent down and quenched his thirst from a river without dismounting or even stopping his horse. He was seen doing so by Sri Akshobhya Tirtha, one of Srimad Ananda Tirtha’s direct disciples, who asked him: “kim pashuh purva-dehe?” (“Were you an animal in a previous life?”; literally: “Did you have an animal’s body previously?”). At this, the memory of his past life in service of Srimad Ananda Tirtha flashed in an instant in the mind of the young Dhond Pant, and he was immediately seized of the irresistible urge to give up material living in favor of the higher realm of service to Sriman-Narayana. He was given sannyasa-diksha by Sri Akshobhya Tirtha very shortly thereafter, and gave up his kingdom and all its promises of material joys, over the objections of his parents. Among the works of Sri Jayatirtha, the best-known is the Nyaya-Sudha, which is a commentary on the Anu Vyakhyana of Srimad Ananda Tirtha (which is itself a commentary on Veda Vyasa’s Brahma Sutra). In it, Sri Jayatirtha refutes various schools’ criticisms of the Anu Vyakhyaana’s precepts, clearly defines terms that Srimad Ananda Tirtha uses, and, in his inimitably exquisite style of usage, shows the logical progression of ideas inherent in the Anu Vyakhyaana’s presentation. His ability, as seen in the ‘Sudha and elsewhere, to anticipate all of one’s objections, and to state them much better than one could oneself, before laying them to rest, is a mark of his proficiency in scripture and eloquence in Sanskrit. It is impossible to think up an objection to Srimad Ananda Tirtha that he has not thought of before, and one can look forward to a most pleasing sensation of satisfaction at receiving the answer, which is always given with no side-stepping or condescension. A saying that tries to capture the delectable treat that the Nyaya-Sudha is, goes as: “sudha va pathaniya, vasudha va palaniya,” which conveys the meaning that the joy of studying the Nyaya-Sudha can only be compared to the joy of ruling a kingdom. Sri Jayatirtha’s Vadavali, which is an original work, refutes the theory of illusion, and counts as the earliest major Madhva polemical text after those authored by Srimad Ananda Tirtha himself; it also is a precursor to the Nyayamrta and Tarka-tandava of Sri Vyasa Tirtha, and other later works. Sri Jayatirtha’s Brndavana is at Malkheda, in the north of modern Karnataka state, from where he continues to bless devotees who, in spite of their own lack of any significant ability, wish to understand Srimad Ananda Tirtha’s writings correctly. Some people hold that one of the brndavanas in the Nava-vrndavana complex in Hampi is that of Sri Jayatiirtha; this is disputed by the Uttaradi Matha, the institution tracing itself to Sri Jayatirtha. The Jayatirtha-vijaya, his biography, also speaks of his brndavana as being in Malkheda, on the bank of the river Kagini.


Works by Sri Jayatiirtha



Tattvoddyota Tika

Vishnu-tatva-vinirnaya Tika

Mayavada Khandana Tika

Prapancha Mithyatvanumana Khandana Tika

Commentary on Upadhi Khandana

Pramana Lakshana Tika

Katha Lakshana Tika

Commentary on Karma Nirnaya


Nyaya-Sudha (Tika on Anu Vyakhyana)

Nyaya Vivarana Tika

Satprashna Upanishad Bhashya Tika

Ishavasya Upanishad Bhashya Tika

Rg Veda Bhashya Tika

Gita Bhasya Prameyadipika

Gita Tatparya Nyayadipika

Vadavali (aka Vedantavadavali)



Shataparadha Stotra

Adhyatma Tarangini

References: “History of the Dvaita School of Vedanta and its   Literature”, Dr. B. N. K. Sharma, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1981.





 Posted by on 17 January 2016 at 09:14:55 AST

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